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乒乓球反手中远台拉冲技术核心环节的 运动学特征分析
蒋津君
(天津体育学院)
摘要:
通过分析反手中远台拉冲技术核心环节的运动学特征,探索其技术动作结构变化的规律以及相应环节在击球过程中的主要作用。运用瑞典Qualisys三维运动捕捉系统对11名优秀男子乒乓球运动员的反手中远台拉冲技术动作进行测试与分析,结果表明,在该动作完成过程中腕、肘、肩、髋、膝、背等各环节都参与协同发力,腿、背、肩部的蹬转运动稍早于伸肘和甩腕;腕在肘后有加速,拍在腕后有加速,球拍顶点的加速结束最晚,击球前的甩腕是最后的加速发力环节;甩腕、伸肘、挥前臂这三个环节是反手拉冲技术中提高挥拍速度的关键环节;蹬腿、顶髋、伸背对于提升挥拍速度的直接作用较小,髋、膝、背部的主要作用在于依据来球的不同特征调节身体的空间位置以及为挥臂提供支撑反作用力;击球时前臂的挥动是向前为主、向上为辅,“快撞在先,快摩在后”;球拍顶点合速度的最大值出现在击球瞬间。研究认为:在实际训练中要注意加强腿、髋、背部依来球不同特征对身体空间位置进行调整的能力,并强调前臂的横向转动以及“伸肘”和“甩腕”对于提高击球质量的作用;另外,还需注意提高各环节间整体协调发力的能力,避免出现发力过早或过晚现象,使球拍挥动速度在击球瞬间达到最大值。
关键词:  乒乓球  中远台  反手拉球技术  核心环节  运动学特征
DOI:
基金项目:
Analysis of Kinematic Characteristics of the Core Parts of Backhand Loop-Drive Technique in Middle Court of Table Tennis
JIANG Jin-jun
(Tianjin University of Sport)
Abstract:
This paper aims to explore the changing rule of the technical movement structure and the main function of the corresponding link by analyzing the kinematic characteristics of the core parts of backhand loop-drive technique in middle court. This research uses Swedish Qualisys 3D motion capture system to test the backhand loop-drive techniques of 11 excellent male table tennis players and analyzes its’ kinematic characteristic, the results show that during the process of movement: The wrist, elbow, shoulder, hip, knee and back are involved in collaboration to work and the roll movement of the leg, back and shoulder is earlier than extending elbow and shaking wrist; The wrist movement is accelerated after the elbow and the racket movement is accelerated after the wrist; The acceleration of the peak of the racket is the latest, and the swing of the wrist before the stroke is the final acceleration link; Shaking wrist, Stretching elbow, wielding forearm are the key links to increase racquet speed; The direct effect of kicking leg, stretching hip and stretching back on the swing speed is relatively small, and the main function of the hip, knee and back is to adjust the position of the body space and provide support for the swing arm according to the different characteristics of the coming ball; The swing of the forearm is mainly to go forward and go upward slightly when hit the ball, “crash first and rub later”; the maximum value of the racquet apex speed appears at the moment of hitting. The study believes that in the actual training, we should pay attention to strengthening the ability of the legs, hips and back to adjust the position of the body space, and emphasize the lateral rotation of the forearm and the stretching elbow and shaking wrist for improving the quality of the shot. In addition, it is necessary to pay attention to improving the overall coordination ability between the links, to avoiding the phenomenon of premature or late force, so that the racquet waving speed reaches the maximum at the moment of hitting.
Key words:  table tennis  middle court  back-hand loop-drive technique  core link  kinematic characteristics

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