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不同速度正向单摇双脚跳绳支撑期下肢及 下肢各关节运动生物力学特征分析
井兰香
0
(燕山大学 体育学院)
摘要:
目的:测试不同速度正向单摇双脚跳绳运动支撑期动力学及运动学参数,分析下肢及下肢各关节生物力学特征变化规律。方法:选取12名男性专业跳绳运动员分别完成慢、中、快三种速度正向单摇双脚连续跳绳运动,同步采集跳绳过程地面反作用力和运动学数据,计算支撑期下肢及下肢各关节动力学参数。结果:中速跳绳峰值地面反作用力、爆发力等明显大于慢、快速跳绳(P<005),随着跳绳速度升高关节活动范围明显减小(P<005),快速跳绳时腿刚度(P<001)和髋、膝、踝关节刚度值最大(P<001),踝关节能量吸收贡献度%最大(P<001)。结论:慢速、中速双脚连续跳绳可锻炼髋、膝、踝关节周围肌肉的超等长收缩能力,快速跳绳主要锻炼踝关节快速超等长收缩能力及髋、膝关节稳定性;跳绳锻炼时应注意下肢尤其是踝关节拉伸热身,提高柔韧性以降低损伤风险。
关键词:  跳绳;刚度;力矩;能量吸收;髋;膝;踝
DOI:
基金项目:河北省社会科学基金项目(HB16HY022)
Biomechanical Characteristics of Lower Limb and its Joints in the Support Period of Forward Single Roll Two feet Rope Skipping with Different Speed
JING Lanxiang
(School of Physical Education, Yanshan University)
Abstract:
Objective: To test the dynamics and kinematics parameters of forward singleroll rope skipping with different speed during the support period, and to analyze the biomechanical characteristics of lower limbs and its joints. Methods: Twelve male professional rope skippers were selected to complete the continuous rope skipping with slow, medium and fast speed, and the ground reaction force and kinematics data were collected synchronously during the process. The dynamic parameters of lower limbs and its joints during the support period were calculated. Results: The peak ground reaction force and explosive force of mediumspeed rope skipping were significantly greater than those of slow and fast skipping (P <005). With the increase of speed, the range of joint motion decreased significantly (P <005). The stiffness of leg (P <001) and hip, knee and ankle joints were the largest (P <001), and the contribution degree of energy absorption of ankle joints was the largest (P <001). Conclusion: Continuous rope skipping with slow and medium speed can exercise the superisometric contraction ability of muscles around hip, knee and ankle joints. Fast rope skipping mainly exercises the superisometric contraction ability of ankle joints and the stability of hip and knee joints. Lower extremities, especially ankle joints, should be stretched and warmed up to improve flexibility so as to reduce the injury risks.
Key words:  rope skipping; stiffness; moment; energy absorption; hip; knee; ankle

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