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跳远专项跳跃练习手段与跳远起跳技术的运动学特征对比分析
温杰
0
(兴义民族师范学院)
摘要:
运用文献资料法、录像解析法、数理统计法和比较分析法,对五项跳远专项跳跃练习手段和跳远起跳技术进行运动学对比分析,旨在发现何种训练手段可以有效提高跳远专项成绩。结果表明:跳深跳远(40 cm、60 cm)与跳远起跳动作多项运动学指标存在较大的差异;三步助跑起跳与跳远起跳动作多项运动学参数接近;五步助跑五级单足跳和五步助跑五级跨步跳的动作结构与负荷强度与跳远起跳动作相似。认为,三步助跑起跳可以作为技术训练手段,但负荷强度较小;跳深跳远(40 cm、60 cm)一定程度上可对起跳腿的退让性工作能力产生的良好效果;采用五步助跑五级单足跳和五步助跑五级跨步跳训练手段,要注意提高运动员起跳腿伸肌群的离心收缩工作能力和加强离心收缩向向心收缩的转化效果的训练,加强运动员起跳腿蹬伸阶段的向心工作能力和踝关节的屈伸能力。
关键词:  跳远;起跳技术;运动学;三步助跑起跳;跳深跳远;五步助跑五级单足跳;五步助跑五级跨步跳
DOI:
基金项目:
Comparative Analysis of Kinematics Characteristics between Special Jumping Training Methods and Take-off Techniques in Long Jump
WEN Jie
(Xingyi Normal University for Nationalities)
Abstract:
By methods of literature, video analysis, mathematical statistics and comparative analysis, this article makes a comparative analysis on the kinematic characteristics between five special jumping training methods and take-off technique in long jump, aiming to find out the right training method to effectively improve the special performance of long jump. The results show that there are great differences in the kinematic parameters of depth-long-jump(40 cm, 60 cm) and long jump take-off, that the kinematic parameters of the three-step approach jump and the take-off in long jump are similar, and that the movement structure and load intensity of five-step approach and one-foot jump and the five-step approach and five-step cross jump are similar with long jump’s take-off. It is believed that the three-step approach and take-off can be used as a technical training means, but the load intensity is small, that the depth-long-jump (40 cm, 60 cm) can have a good effect on the abdication working ability of the takeoff leg, that when adopting the five-step approach and five-step one-foot jump and five-step approach and five-step cross jump training methods, attention should be given to improving the centrifugal contraction working ability of the take-off leg’s extensor group, the training of strengthening the transformation effect of centrifugal contraction to centripetal contraction, and strengthening the centripetal working ability of the take-off leg extension stage and the flexion and extension ability of the ankle joint.
Key words:  long jump; take-off technique; kinematics; three-step approach and take off; depth-long-jump; five-step approach and five-step one-foot jump; five-step approach and five-step cross jump

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