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可宥性事由:体育竞赛“越轨”行为出罪的又一考量因素
刘峰江
0
(乐山师范学院 法学与公共管理学院,四川 乐山614000)
摘要:
可宥性事由源于英美刑事诉讼中的可抗辩事由,与正当化事由联袂构成行为出罪理论的基石。与正当化事由不同,可宥性事由已经僭越了法定的行为正当化条件,行为的违法性首先被肯定,只是在责任归属上寻求宽恕性处理。引入可宥性事由,可丰富体育竞赛行为入罪和出罪的相关内容,便于司法统一判定。分析认为,体育竞赛行为可宥性事由成立,要满足体育赛事本身具有合法性和正规性、主体仅针对运动员、行为局限于体育竞赛行为、违法目的“单纯”性、行为以“反规则”为前提等条件。入罪和出罪的类型化有利于定罪和量刑的规范化,分别对竞技伤害行为、滥用兴奋剂行为、假球等竞赛舞弊行为适用可宥性事由予以出罪抑或减轻处罚的情形进行具体分析。最后,指出体育竞赛运动员可宥性事由行为入罪不能忽视运动员自由保障的理念,且尽量避免选择性刑事司法。
关键词:  体育竞赛行为;正当化事由;可宥性事由;出罪;竞技伤害;兴奋剂;竞技舞弊;选择性司法
DOI:
基金项目:
Excusable Cause: Another Factor of the Crime of Deviant Behavior in Sports Competitions
LIU Jiangfeng
(Law and Public Management School, Leshan Normal University, Leshan 614000, China)
Abstract:
Excusable cause is the basis of the theory of the crime of the act, which is composed of the defensible cause originated from the criminal procedure in the United Kingdom and the United States. Different from the justifiable cause, the excusable cause has overstepped the legal conditions for the justification of the act. The illegality of the act is first affirmed and only seeks forgiveness in the attribution of responsibility. The introduction to excusable cause can enrich the relevant contents of incrimination and exoneration of sports competition behavior, and facilitate the judicial unified judgment. The analysis shows that the establishment of the excusable event of sports competition behavior should meet the following conditions. The sports event itself has the legitimacy and regularity; the main body only aims at the athletes; the behavior is limited to the sports competition behavior; the illegal purpose is pure and the behavior is based on the premise of antirules. The classification of incrimination and discharge is conducive to the standardization of conviction and sentencing. This paper makes a specific analysis on the situation of the application of excusable cause of crime or mitigated punishment for competitive frauds, such as competitive injury, abuse of stimulant and match fixing. Finally, it points out that the concept of athletes’ freedom protection should not be ignored and selective criminal justice should be avoided as far as possible.
Key words:  sports competition behavior; justifiable cause; excusable cause; crime; competitive injury; doping; competitive fraud; selective justice

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